Censor.NET reports citing the report by WADA.
"The 103-page report outlines the following key findings that meet the standard of beyond reasonable doubt:
"1. The Moscow laboratory operated, for the protection of doped Russian athletes, within a State-dictated failsafe system, described in the Report as the Disappearing Positive Methodology.
"2. The Sochi laboratory operated a unique sample swapping methodology to enable doped Russian athletes to compete at the Games.
"3. The Ministry of Sport directed, controlled and oversaw the manipulation of athletes' analytical results and sample swapping, with the active participation and assistance of the Federal Security Service (FSB); the Center of Sports Preparation of National Teams of Russia (CSP); and, both Moscow and Sochi laboratories.
"The Report also indicates the involvement of the Russian National Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA); and, shows that some of the key people involved, in particular the deputy sports minister, were members of the Russian Olympic Committee. Furthermore, the Investigation reveals that State oversight and directed control of the Moscow laboratory in processing and covering up urine samples of Russian athletes was applied to all sport disciplines whose urine samples were being analyzed by the Moscow laboratory."
Zoning of the anti-doping laboratory in Sochi, where 6 is a room in an isolated bloc, and 5 is a room with a hall in the wall.
WADA managed to prove that urine swapping was taking place in many cases of anti-doping tests of Russian sportsmen. At least three urine samples contained DNA of other people than those indicated on the samples, and many urine containers had signs of lid removing on them.
Europe Online Magazine citing dpa reported that the cases were part of what WADA investigator Richard McLaren described in his report as a "disappearing positive methodology" in which the state, domestic intelligence and the Moscow anti-doping laboratories colluded to make positive tests disappear.
The tests affected athletes from some 30 sports, led by track and field (139) folowed by weightligting (117), Paralympic sports (35) and wrestling (28).
The number is described as "only a minimum" as McLaren could not achieve full access to all Russian records.
"Accordingly, WADA recommends to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) to consider, under their respective Charters, to decline entries, for Rio 2016, of all athletes submitted by the Russian Olympic Committee (ROC) and the Russian Paralympic Committee. Furthermore, any exceptional entry of a Russian athlete should be considered by the IOC and IPC for participation under a neutral flag and in accordance with very strict criteria.
"WADA also recommends that Russian Government officials be denied access to international competitions, including Rio 2016," the WADA report concludes.
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