"Spoke at length today with FM Lavrov about #Syria and #Ukraine," Kerry said on Twitter on March 24. "Productive dialogue with important partner."
Kerry earlier said a "fragile" cessation of hostilities in Syria had "produced some progress," adding that he wanted to see a further reduction as well as greater flows of humanitarian aid.
Lavrov said he intended to discuss "how the international community can assist in the settlement of the Ukrainian crisis."
Kerry will also meet with President Vladimir Putin.
During the talks, the secretary of state is expected to gauge whether the Russian leadership is ready to discuss ways to ease Syrian President Bashar al-Assad from power.
On Ukraine, he is expected to call on Moscow to do more to press Russian-backed separatists in the country's east to comply with a cease-fire.