According to the survey, the Russian media mentioned Turkey as an enemy of Russia 322 times totally in November and 1487 in December. The number of negative references to the United States and Ukraine during the same period decreased from 2,401 and 1,990 cases in November to 1,019 and 859 in December respectively.
According to an unnamed employee of one of the Russian federal channels, there were no specific instructions issued concerning Turkey - the media representatives mainly looked up to public statements by President Vladimir Putin.
The attitude to Ukraine, which was heading the same rating in the first half of the year, was steadily improving in late 2015. According to the survey, neither the food blockade of Crimea, nor its blackout affected the reduction of negative attitude to Kyiv. The U.S. outran Ukraine in October, after the start of the Russian campaign in Syria: the number of publications, where the U.S. was called sponsor or ally of terrorists, has significantly increased since then.
It should be reminded that Turkey downed the Russian Su-24 bomber Nov. 24. One of the two pilots was killed as a result. Ankara insisted that the aircraft had violated its airspace while Moscow denied it. Vladimir Putin called the incident a "stab in the back" and accused the Turkish authorities of making profit from the oil trade with the "Islamic State".